The fence of underground waters is carried out by the device of key, mine or boring (tubular) wells.
Having reached a ground impervious layer, water gathers there and depending on the collected quantity starts to search for an exit, and having found it, flows down in lower places, forming, so-called keys. Water, accumulating between two water-proof layers from which one is below, and the second above. In such layers water is strongly compressed and is under pressure. Such compressed water finds a way out more often in the form of separate streams.
If water leaves on an earth surface on an equal low place, but under some pressure it is so-called ascending keys and if water is drained off towards a ravine or breakage and flows down downwards, so-called descending keys.
When water is very strongly compressed between two water-proof layers and at drilling in such place of a driven well water with force rises upwards and gushes forth, such stream of water is called as artesian.
For reception underground waters which undertake from springs, various wells or artesian driven wells are economic-potable water used. The choice of a type of a vertical water intake should be made taking into account depth залегания water-bearing layers and conditions of their food. The lot should be in favorable conditions in the sanitary relation, excluding possibility of pollution of used underground waters household and industrial run-off waters or waters with the raised mineralization, газонасыщенностью and harmful components.
To find a water-bearing stratum on a lot – a vital importance problem on which the correct organisation of water supply of the farmstead house or a cottage in many respects depends.
National поверья narrate: «If feet easily leave in the earth and at the same time the earth sticks to feet, these instructions, that here there is a water». There are more straight instructions on water presence. These are the plants loving water: a willow, a reed, a cane, an ivy … At the earth which makes grape trees with dense foliage and on which mainly are found an elder, a clover and wild plum, – soil good and water tasty. Also abundance of frogs, earthworms, mosquitoes and the small feathered insects, flying large flights, specifies in water presence.
«At the clear sky at a dawn lay down also a chin lean about the earth. Take a view of surrounding district, and there where you will see pairs rising and curling in air, there will be a water».
Water search on a lot is an art which people have seized from time immemorial. On water experts of the business strengthen a scent by means of the simple adaptation-rod (a branch with a junction like a slingshot) or wire arrows which grip.
In the practice I had to find water on a lot by means of aluminium прутков. According to the advice of knowing people, I took two pieces of an aluminium wire long on 40см, have bent them G-shapedly (accordingly 10 and 30sm). Took them for the short ends in both hands, holding hardly, not clipping in hands. Hands at breast level, rods are directed forward in parallel a surface of the earth and in parallel each other. I slowly passed in such position on a lot. Rods did not change the position. And here in one place rods were gushed over, having noted this place, I continued to go further, rods have dispersed. I have repeated it some times and, each time when I approached to this place, rods were gushed over, it was necessary to me to depart further – rods dispersed. Under a dense layer of clay, on depth 8м there was a water. We are happy, the question of water supply of our lot is solved.
The cardinal decision of a problem of water supply considers presence of independent systems for individual home ownerships and personal systems of a filtration in premises with the centralised water supply system as fondly to assume, that municipal bodies in the close future can provide in necessary and sufficient volume of all interested persons with really pure and low-cost water.
The independent system of water delivery can be realised various variants of a water intaking construction:
— By means of a well consisting of tubular filtering mine in diameter not less 50см and depth to 10 metres, an automatic hydropneumatic plant, the monitoring system of a height of water in a well gives the chance receptions not less than two-three steres of high-quality service water a day, that it is quite enough for a family from 4-6 persons;
— By means of the automatic hydropneumatic plant submitting water from a number of the located pond;
— Driven well in diameter not less than 8 sm, in case of a finding of water-bearing strata on depth below 10 metres from surface level, and depth can reach 100 metres and more;
— Gathering of rain water or thawing snow from slope or horizontal roofs. At the expense of use of such sources of a moisture, it is possible to realise a part of requirement for water. For a year from a surface of a standard roof of a private structure by the area 100 м2 it is caught to 100 м3 rain water that makes a considerable part of annual consumption of a family of 3-4 persons. Using internal and external hydroaccumulators, including the given devices in the general scheme of water preparation, it is possible to achieve an effective utilisation of rain water for a life.
Advantages of independent systems consists that such water supply does not depend on whim of officials, allows to provide the set pressure of water irrespective of consumption of water by neighbours. On the other hand, the water source is in immediate proximity from home unit under a constant visual inspection. And the main thing it is not necessary to get the counter of the expense of consumed water.